Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Question: Depict about the corporate social duty. Answer: Presentation Corporate social duty (CSR) likewise alluded to as corporate citizenship or corporate administration has gotten one of the greater part of discussed issues in the current day business conversations. There are numerous perspectives about what comprises CSR, why it is significant and how to coordinate CSR into the business culture of an association. Basically, CSR is type of corporate self-administration and a drawn out duty of an association to lead business in a socially mindful, reasonable and moral way (Carroll 2015). Corporate social obligation is a methods for consolidating moral strategic policies and guidelines into the business associations and its activities. This article, hence, target talking about and examining corporate social responsibilitys contemporary discussions and design. In the cutting edge business setting, the job of CSR has gotten significantly progressively significant, as it focuses on economical turn of events and expanding associations support in network im provement. Along these lines, it is imperative to comprehend what are the present patterns in the CSR and how the CSR exercises of organizations are characterizing the business condition and what are its future ramifications. Corporate Social Responsibility Corporate social duty can be characterized as a business approach that focuses on manageable improvement by conveying monetary, social and natural advantages for all the partners. CSR, anyway is an extremely expansive term and incorporates numerous components, for example, corporate administration, wellbeing and security, natural issues, human rights, and commitment to monetary improvement of partners. In spite of the fact that, CSR numerous definitions the hidden rule is to drive change towards maintainability (Pedersen 2015). The present conversation on CSR targets finding the correct responses to questions, for example, how an association can create genuine benefits? What ought to be viewed as a reasonable dispersion of an organizations riches between investors, representatives and the general public? Are organizations are required to put some portion of their riches once again into the general public? Could markets be depended upon to set reasonable costs of work, assets and items? Do government needs to screen companies CSR? (Preuss 2013). Business morals being a piece of the more extensive idea of CSR has consistently been an interesting issue. It is the duty of business enterprises to serve the general public where it works. Disregarding all issues identified with what comprises perfect meaning of CSR and how an association can coordinate CSR in the center business approaches, there are a few organizations that have set genuine models for different enterprises to follow. CSR when actualized and consolidated in the genuine sense can prompt numerous advantages to the associations that can't be examined quickly yet has long haul positive results. CSR helps in character working of the association and aides in upgrading brand esteem and supported business activities. There are a few associations that have taken the idea to an unheard of level by being socially and ecologically proactive about authoritative jobs and duties corresponding to its partners and the general public it serves (Weiss 2014).One such model can be Starbucks. The organization has vowed to give full education costs to its representatives for every one of the four years of school with no duty to remain back with Starbucks post graduation. In the course of recent years, the organization has embraced numerous means to help in the improvement of its partners. The organization had intentional common its benefits with its representatives by furnishing them with human services offices, pre-charge stock gains and annuity commitments (Korschun et al. 2014). Beforehand corporate social obligation has been comprehended as the foundation or generous works performed by business companies. Likewise, because of expanding worry for the earth, business enterprises effectively began endeavor activities to moderate the earth. Nonetheless, the idea of CSR is extremely expansive and incorporates business morals, legitimate consistence, network ventures, representative government assistance, straightforward detailing of budget reports, ecological administration, supportability, bio-decent variety protection, human rights, corporate administration, and reasonable and straightforward strategic policies (Aguinis and Glavas 2012). The present patterns in CSR centers around both inner and outside partners of the association for example workers, investors, and network all in all. The CSR targets fabricating a long haul and commonly advantageous relationship with the associations partners and society by huge. Business organizations need to create deliberate and required revealing identifying with the business. The general standards of morals and ethical quality ought to be joined into the strategic approaches in such a way, that business produces economical riches for itself and help being developed of society and condition (Cheng et al. 2014). Despite broad conversation on the CSRs primary destinations and, how it can support the association, society, and condition in accomplishing reasonable turn of events, there is colossal distinction among hypothesis and practice. The vast majority of the business associations consider corporate to be obligation exercises as methods for concealing their out of line strategic approaches and introducing a positive picture of itself in the general public. The rise of different embarrassments in the ongoing past approves this point (Ragas and Culp 2014). For example, the monetary embarrassment of Enron Corp. lead to chapter 11 of the business as well as seriously influenced its partners, for example, workers, investors, society and government. It is the duty of business to help in the riches boost of it partners and follow reasonable strategic policies to secure the premiums of its partners. Volkseagen epitomizes the comparable penetrate of CSR center strategy. Volkswagens outflow outrage that was expected to companys playing of diesel fumes contamination tests goes under the domain of untrustworthy strategic approaches. From one perspective, the organization introduces itself as socially and earth mindful business while simultaneously enjoys such corrupt strategic policies that puts the earth in danger (DesJardins and McCall 2014).The Volkswagens case is a great case of CSR disappointment. The organization intentionally created rout gadgets (programming) that have bypassed the discharge tests and this has helped the organization to become number one carmaker in the Germany. The organization has totally overlooked the standards of corporate social obligation and fabricated and promoted vehicles that produce multiple times of the admissible nitrogen oxide discharges. This had genuine natural ramifications that gradually harming the earth and put the interests of its partners in danger (Schneider and Schmidpeter 2012). In the light of these two models, it very well may be said that business companies are not as dependable as it expected of them. To expand benefits, rout rivalry, and to make progress, organizations are pondering damaging the standards of business morals and corporate administration. The practices, for example, adulteration of bookkeeping reports, inordinate misuse of normal assets, out of line exchange rehearses, infringement of human rights at processing plants (particularly in immature and creating nations), natural debasement are still practically speaking and corporate social duty has become only a sort of commitment or consistence that enterprises embrace (Mirvis 2012). As referenced, the basic rule behind corporate social obligation is to gadget implies for reasonable turn of events and working together in a moral way so in general improvement of the general public can accomplished. CSR is a type of corporate self-administration and it is important that business follow the guideline of respectability and morals. In any case, as apparent from the instances of Enron and Volkswagen that business company are as yet struck in the modern age where the sole motivation behind business is to amplify benefits at any expense. CSR has become a veil under which enterprises shrouds their actual expectations and attempts to introduce a positive or socially capable picture. Along these lines, it is significant for the legislature to intently screen organizations inward tasks and CSR works on being trailed by enterprises, as business companies have not had the option to screen and inside administer untrustworthy and uncalled for strategic policies (Vogel and Trapp 2014). Corporate administration is controlled by companies inward code of morals, vision and statements of purpose and authority style. In spite of the fact that, CSR is dictated by free economic situations and associations self-obligation towards the network they serve, it might be helpful for the network if the administration regulates and controls the CSR of business companies. Government have better comprehension of network needs and business associations works preferable under legitimate guidelines rather over the free market. Government can uphold good and moral standards on uninterested organizations (Servaes and Tamayo 2013). CSR is something that requires standardizing and graphic investigation, government association, lawful structure, and market elements. CSR is very significant for dynamic and activities since it is identified with chief, supervisors and different members from corporate parts. For example, Australia has taken major CSR administrative requests in 21st century. Be ing an individual from G20 it is probably the greatest economy in Asia pacific locale which has expanded its hugeness towards making maintainability structure and venture (Cavico 2013). Ongoing discussions with respect to the CSR Strategy are fundamentally worried about the reasonable circulation of associations riches between the investors, workers and society. CSR, which is the worldwide test of 21st century, can be
Saturday, August 22, 2020
This article is all the more an examination paper and audit on past investigations than new exploratory discoveries. This paper attempts to make an association between passionate working and social fitness (prevalence) of a kid. The definition utilized in this paper of social capability is Ã¢â¬Å"the capacity to be viable in the acknowledgment of social objectives. We will compose a custom exposition test on Enthusiastic Functioning And Social Competence or then again any comparable theme just for you Request Now Ã¢â¬ This can likewise be seen as the capacity to impact peers and their exercises. Companions of the kids were picked as the wellspring of capability assessments. This exploration depended on six diverse enthusiastic capacities and capacities. ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s comprehension of feelings, their recognizable proof of their own feelings, feeling guideline, practice of feeling show leads, their thoughtful reaction, and their disposition states. Comprehension of feelings appears to be firmly related to peer economic wellbeing of a youngster. The capacity to comprehend feelings additionally suggests the capacity to pass judgment on the social setting as a rule, permitting the youngster to make Ã¢â¬Å"relevant remarks and [engage] in bunch arranged conduct. Ã¢â¬ This capacity permits the kid to Ã¢â¬Å"engage effectively in helpful play for supported timeframes. Ã¢â¬ There was no immediate proof that the capacity to recognize oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own feeling affects social capability of a youngster. Be that as it may, it is sensible that having the option to distinguish oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own feelings would help comprehend the enthusiastic conditions of others. Feeling guideline likewise appears to assume a key job in the social skill of a youngster. Most kids understand that they are responsible for their feelings and that feelings can be adjusted. As kids get more established, effective play will require progressively restraint in light of the fact that there will be numerous circumstances where Ã¢â¬Å"negotiation of conflictÃ¢â¬ is fundamental. Kids who can show increasingly poise will be seen as a progressively alluring play accomplices. It has additionally been discovered that Ã¢â¬Å"social fame is conversely identified with plain outrage occurrences. Ã¢â¬ It appears that the more mainstream kids are better at adapting to outrage prompting circumstances. The idea of passionate presentation rules is like feeling guideline. Enthusiastic presentation decides are the principles that are followed in order to keep the harmony and equalization in a social setting. Certain feelings are not proper for certain circumstances. It is hard to quantitatively evaluate how well a kid utilizes passionate presentation rules, yet it follows consistently that a kid who is popular with his companions will have the option to appropriately show or cover his feelings in a given circumstance. Since compassion expects one to be Ã¢â¬Å"other-oriented,Ã¢â¬ significance understanding the misery of others from their perspective, it would require some passionate control. The two instructors and friends depict well known kids as more agreeable and accommodating than the normal youngster, and dismissed kids as less supportive. In any case, there was no immediate proof for reasoning that societal position can be anticipated from thoughtful reacting. Temperament conditions of a kid can likewise be a factor in whether that youngster is an attractive companion or not. Youngsters who routinely show positive states of mind are better enjoyed by their companions. Touchy kids will in general be despised by their friends. Nonetheless, it is hard to decide circumstances and logical results of this. From this article, a childÃ¢â¬â¢s societal position and notoriety has extraordinary connection to the enthusiastic usefulness of that youngster. We don't generally have the foggiest idea, similarly as with numerous other mental investigations, what the reason is and what the impact is. This is by all accounts the case with the disposition conditions of the kids. In any case, in the various cases, the reason is by all accounts the enthusiastic usefulness of the kid and the impact is prominence. So would it be a good idea for us to instruct our youngsters to be all the more genuinely steady and utilitarian? Would it be advisable for us to cause our youngsters to adjust to societyÃ¢â¬â¢s measures to be Ã¢â¬Å"popular? Ã¢â¬ I see nothing amiss with it. We can make our general public progressively idealistic by ensuring that our kids are sincerely practical and that all the youngsters are acknowledged by one another. As those youngsters develop to be grown-ups, they can be progressively helpful and gainful, improving a general society. The most effective method to refer to Emotional Functioning And Social Competence, Essay models
Saturday, August 1, 2020
BOLO in Law Enforcement Code Be on the Lookout For people who dont work in any field of law enforcement, you may have heard certain terms or phrases used by police officers and youve been wondering what they mean.Well, law enforcement has an entirely unique lingo; this is why you have no clue what theyre saying.One of the aims of this police jargon is to ensure a feeling of unity among officers and also to provide the best way of communication between them.These kinds of codes or police jargon began from the 1920s to 1960s, as radio communication between police officers became more rampant.This was because radio traffic needed to be kept low to ensure that communication lines dont get jammed.However, in contemporary times with the advancement in technology, most of these terms used in police lingo are to quickly spread useful information about a criminal occurrence to officers on the ground.WHATâS THE USEFULNESS OF POLICE JARGON?Initially, police lingo may look pointless or too difficult for servicemen to understand but these s eemingly meaningless terms serve a huge purpose.It may seem that the whole purpose of using these acronyms is for the communication between two law enforcement men to stay encrypted from the public, but this is not so.It may be part of the reason but the primary purpose of making use of law enforcement jargon is to keep the information being passed across straight to the point and short.Aside from this, the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) is big on short transmissions; this is with the aim of saving bandwidth.If huge volumes of radio transmissions are passed across through the airwaves it restricts its use for other reasons.Whats more, these short and concise abbreviations are very important for the safety of law enforcement officials, whether at traffic lights, following up a car jack, or patrolling.The primary aim of the officer should be solving the task at hand or effectively handling the subject they are engaging with, without having to spend so much time trying to aler t other officers on whats happening.To elaborate some more, in 2016, 56 law enforcement officers in the United States were killed in the line of duty, with 26 of them killed by gunfire.This shows what officers have to deal with on a daily basis.In the line of fire, every second matters and these codes can help an officer quickly get information about a situation before it gets worse.As far as security matters are concerned, every single second and minute counts and the sooner the right information is passed to the right person, the higher the chances of lives being saved.In the United States, for every one million civilian, there are a hundred thousand police officers and in order to ensure smooth operations with such a huge difference ratio, law enforcement agents must be able to communicate quickly and efficiently with each other and this communication is most effective through codes. Source: PSMagWHAT IS THE TRANSMISSION PROCESS TO LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS?Ever been driving or in traffic somewhere and you suddenly see a police vehicle speed passed you with its siren blaring and lights flashing?If youre like most people, youve probably thought about how they all knew where to go and where they were going at the same time.Thats actually a valid train of thought because someone sent them there and informed them they were needed in that particular location, most times, urgently, which is why they zoom past like that.Often times, it was a police dispatcher who directed them to that location. Police dispatchers are extremely important to the law enforcement agency.They may be overlooked most times but are a vital aspect to the success of police officers in the field.WHO TRANSMITS DISTRESS CALLS TO POLICE OFFICERS?As we saw above police dispatchers are responsible for passing across distress calls to the officers on patrol.Do not be mistaken, as easy as sending short po lice jargon acronyms to other law enforcement servicemen sounds, it can be very stressful.More often, dispatchers also double as 911 operators, this entails receiving distress calls and then dispatching officers to the location of the call using concise terms.Dispatchers usually receive the first contact with the distressed persons before other law enforcement agents do. This is why using short codes or lingo is essential.Most times the cause of call could be extremely urgent and trying to pass the information regularly to police officers around that location could slow the response time down.There are many kinds of lingos, slangs and acronyms used by law enforcement agents, but for the sake of this article, we will be examining a common police jargon known as BOLO.Im pretty sure you must have heard this word being used by police officers and you have wondered what on earth a BOLO is.Here is what BOLO is not, BOLO is not a new weapon used by the police neither is it the name of a ne w software used by law enforcement agents. What then is BOLO?MEANING OF BOLOBOLO is an acronym for âBe on the Lookoutâ.Itâs majorly used by law enforcement agents to send information to officers in other parts of a city or country to be on the lookout for a fugitive, criminal or law offender that is on the run.It could also be used for missing persons or stolen items.When an officer calls another and says âBOLO for a blonde man driving a red SUV with a shattered windscreenâ, what the message simply means is the receiver of the call should be on the Lookout for any blonde man driving a red SUV with a broken windscreen.It could probably be that the blonde man caused an accident and he fled the accident scene or that he was involved in a shootout with the police and he is on the run.Once the police officer receives the call, he starts paying attention to every car that passes by him especially if it is a red vehicle and once he identifies the car, he can flag it down and have the driver arrested or call for backup if there is a need for backup.Most often a BOLO signal is sent to many officers at a time.If a crime is committed and the culprit is on the run, all cops in the city and the ones at the different entry and exit points of the city including airports, seaports, train and bus station etc are alerted and they all swing into action to make sure that the criminal is caught.UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCE IS A BOLO ISSUED?A BOLO is issued mostly in a situation where there is a criminal on the run from law enforcement agents.Most times people break the law and instead of paying for the offense, they try to play smart and send the police on a wild goose chase after them.It could be that there was an officer that witnessed the crime and could not arrest the criminal because he was overpowered or the crime was reported via a 911 call and the description of the culprit was given.Once the law enforcement agents get this report, they swing into action immediately a nd send a message to all their men stationed at the different corners of the city to be on the Lookout for the criminal.A BOLO can be issued for a serial rapist or killer, a kidnapper, a robber, a gang of thieves, members of a drug cartel, smugglers, traffickers, and even drunk drivers.There is no specific crime that a person has to commit before a BOLO is issued on him, as far as the person is considered a threat to the society or theyâre absconding from paying for his offense, a BOLO is placed on him to make sure he is arrested.A BOLO can also be issued on a person that is missing. When people get missing and their families cant get in touch with them to know their whereabouts and safety, a report is made to the cops and a BOLO is sent out to other officers to be on the lookout for the missing person.This will help in finding the missing person fast, it could be that the person was involved in an accident and didnt have an ID on him for identification or he was kidnapped or mugg ed.Whatever the circumstance surrounding the disappearance may be, once a BOLO is issued the person will easily be found.A BOLO could also be issued on a missing or stolen item.For example if someones car got hijacked or stolen from him, he can call the police and alert them immediately that his car just got stolen from him, he will describe the car and the direction in which the thieves went.After the law enforcement agents receive the complaint, they signal their men along that route to be on the lookout for the car of the man so that the car can be recovered and the thieves apprehended.WHAT DOES A BOLO CALL ENTAIL?When a BOLO call is made concerning a person or an object it isnt a sketchy and summarized call it is rather very descriptive.This is because, for whatever or whoever it is to be apprehended by the cops, they have to know exactly what they are looking for so that they do not end up arresting the wrong person.When a person calls to report a crime, he is expected to give as many details as he can remember of the criminals to help the police lay hold on the criminal without much stress.The same is applicable when a âBe on the Lookoutâ order is issued.If what is being looked for is a person, the BOLO description will include the physical features of the person and his appearance such as:His/Her race or skin color (could be an Asian, a Caucasian, an African, or an Arab etc).His/Her hair color (blonde, brunette, grey, dyed etc).His/ her height and weight (it could be an estimation, since the reporter of the crime may not have so many details he could say about 5 feet tall or any other height estimation)Gender (Male or female)Description of the clothing. The caller has to describe the clothing the person is wearing. This description includes the type of clothing if it is shorts, pants, dress, jumpsuit etc. The color of the clothing is also important. Every single detail about the clothing is important if the criminal has something as little as a handkerchief with him or a ring on a finger it should also be included in the clothing description.Means of transport used by the offender: a car, motorcycle etc and the description of the means.If it is an object that is missing say a vehicle, the description also has to be detailed.If its a vehicle the following description will be provided for easy identification:The manufacturer of the car. For example a Cadillac, Toyota, Mercedes, Ford etc.The model and year of the car.The color of the car.The license plate number of the car.Other unique details on the car such as a sticker, the type of rims used on the tire, a damage on the car etc.All these information is necessary so that the particular person or item is found without any mix-up.A vague BOLO usually gives the officers a tough time because it is easy for them to identify the person or item if the details are elaborate.When reporting a crime to the police or to 911 ensure you give all the details you know, this will make the ir job easier.That is why you find cops on crime scenes trying to get information from the eye witness of the crime, the more information they have, the closer they get to apprehend the suspect.Despite the fact that a BOLO is descriptive, it is also meant to be short and straight to the point.IMPORTANCE OF BOLOWithout being told, you can already tell that BOLO is very beneficial to law enforcement agencies.If it wasnt important or helpful, it would have probably been ditched a long time ago.Letâs see some of the importance of BOLO:1. BOLO Facilitates the Apprehending of CriminalsCrime is on the increase on a daily basis and the best way law enforcement agents can ensure that every criminal pays for his crime is by making sure that he is arrested.A survey by the FBI carried out in 2016 showed that about 1.2 million violent crimes were committed in the US in 2016 alone.The same study showed that 64.3% of the reported crime was for aggravated assault while 26.6% was over robbery, 7.7 % were rape-related crimes.According to the same report, 10.7 million arrests excluding traffic violations were made in 2016. Below is a Pie Chart showing the crime rate and the percentage of each crime Source: FBIYou can agree with me that this is a very huge figure.You may be wondering how the police were able to make all these arrests, a major percentage of these arrests were made based on BOLO alerts.If not for BOLO the figures would have been increased by a greater percentage.2. BOLO Helps the Law Enforcement Agents Not to Make Wrong ArrestsWhen a crime is committed, there are many suspects, but the fact that someone is a suspect doesnt make him guilty of the offense.A BOLO call placed with the appropriate description of the culprit will help the cops to get the exact person.The reason why innocent people are arrested sometimes is because the cops dont have specific evidence that will link them to the offender and so they end up picking the wrong people.Research carried out by Aizman Law firm with information from the Michigan registry showed that at least 4.1 percent of all the defendants that had been sentenced to death were innocent.According to the report, since the 1970s m ore than 8000 people who had been put on the death row were falsely convicted.Below is a graph showing the exoneration of wrongfully accused persons on a yearly basis based on the data from the Michigan registry. Source: AizmanlawIf there was an accurate BOLO issued out with the exact description of the offender, these innocent people wouldnt have had to pay for offences they didnt commit.3. A BOLO Can Help in the Arrest of a Defaulting Officer Who is on the RunBy sending a signal to the other cops, the defaulting cop wont be able to infiltrate the system and get away with the crime.Sometimes, police officers are also guilty of committing offenses and if the eyewitness of the crime doesnt call 911 immediately to report the cop may get away with it and actually fool the entire police force into not suspecting that he is the criminal.Some cops have been convicted of crimes they committed while they were off duty.Below is a chart showing the data of cops that have been arrested due to committing offenses between the years 2005 to 2011. Source: Washington PostMost of them didnt commit the crime while on duty or wearing their uniform but with the accurate description from one or two eyewitnesses, the defaulting cop was caught.In a case like that, a BOLO is sent to his/her other colleagues and he/she is arrested immediately before further harm is done.4. A BOLO Can Be Used to Alert Members of the PublicIn some cases, a BOLO is placed for the public, warning them to be on the lookout for a dangerous criminal that is on the run.This information can be passed via a broadcast or through newspaper or magazine publication.This will help to keep the public alert and make them easily identify the criminal when spotted and to report to the nearest police station immediately.Warning the public will also help to save the lives of some unsuspecting people that may fall victim to the criminals attack.Sometimes the police may have a hard time apprehending some criminals and in order to keep the public safe and to easily get news on the criminal, they alert the public to be on the lookout.This form of BOLO has helped to save the lives of many people and has also gotten criminals that are on the run arrested.For example, if a rapist or a serial killer is on the run and the cops are having a hard time apprehending him, they alert the public to be at alert and give a description of the criminal and sometimes if the picture is available, the picture of the criminal will be attached.Members of the public are advised to alert the police if the criminal is spotted.This is mostly done for serial criminals who have a particular pattern or cycle they follow to attack people or criminals that have picked on a particular set of victims.CONCLUSIONThe BOLO code is essential to help police officers know details of a subject very quickly which aids the speed of their response time.However, this is just one of the many acronyms in the police jargon.âIf you are looking for a career in the police force or simply are just inter ested by such unique codes, by now you should be able to fully understand what the code BOLO means.So, the next time you hear the code BOLO, you know what to be on the lookout for.So far, BOLO has helped the law enforcement agents to arrest, convict and charge criminals for their offenses.If BOLO was not used by cops, more than half of criminals would have gotten away with the crime, because criminals will be able to easily slip past officers stationed at strategic points without policemen or women on duty knowing a wanted criminal or a stolen item just passed under their nose.For example, if a bank robbery happened in the center of town and the robbers drove towards the outskirt of the town, the only way the police officers at the border and the outskirts of the town will be alerted of the approaching group of criminals is through a BOLO.Without the BOLO, the criminals can drive past and even wave the cops on duty without them suspecting anything.With the use of BOLO, law enforceme nt agents can now work together as one with the same information, at the same time, to clamp down on criminals and also to restore stolen and missing items or people.
Friday, May 22, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"To stand up for what you believe in is more important than to be scared of imprisonment or death.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Socrates The Apology In this literature review I will discuss both Socrates and Jesus Christ (Jesus). I will compare and distinguish them, by their trial, misdeeds (through the view of society), law, justice and punishment. In addition, I will write about their influence in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society and what impact they have made through time. Both Socrates and Jesus had many things in common yet, they weÃ¢â¬â¢re different. Both had different religious beliefs. While, Socrates was polytheistic, believing in several gods. Jesus, in the other hand was monotheism, believed in only one God. Both were charged, tried, and executed for their Ã¢â¬Å"radicalÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The jurors found Socrates guilty and condemned him to death, by drinking hemlock. As Socrates learns about the jurorsÃ¢â¬â¢ decision, he is not upset, and sees it as a sign from god that it is his destiny. Ã¢â¬Å"The godÃ¢â¬â¢s sign didnÃ¢â¬â¢t oppose me when I left home this morning, or when I was about to say somet hing, even though in other discussions it has often stopped me in the middle of what I was saying.Ã¢â¬ (The Apology, pp. 668) As before, Socrates would hear a voice that would tell him when he should be quite, and not speak to avoid problems. Only that day he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t hear the voice therefore, he saw it as destiny from the gods. Unlike Socrates, Jesus did not defend himself when he was being tried. He did not argue with the governor nor did he have a jury, at least a fair one. He was arrested forcefully and beaten. Ã¢â¬Å"They spat him in his face and struck him with their fist and beat him up.Ã¢â¬ (The New Testament, Matthew 26, pp 898) Jesus never retaliated back. Jesus mentions to the high priests of their wrong doing by arresting him as if he were a Ã¢â¬Å"highwayman.Ã¢â¬ Jesus preached about His beliefs with God, and all his Glory. He went around telling people that he was the son of God. These accusations raised chaos with the Jews. He was brought to the house of Caiaphas, the high priest. They were looking for any kind of evidence, or excuse to kill Jesus. Ã¢â¬Å"The high priestShow MoreRelatedKantian Ethics and Christian Ethics1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages(Kantian Ethics). In simpler terms, act in a way which everyone would act in a similar situation. Let us compare maxims to commandments. Maxims are rules or principles in which you act, versus a commandment is a divine rule which you follow. The difference is minimum, but the context is similar. The first law corresponds to one of the greatest commandments in Gods law. In Matthew 22:36-2240, Jesus tells us Though shalt love thy neighbor as thyself (King James). The alikeness between the two is theRead MoreJustin Martyr Essay3085 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesstudies, he became a disciple of Socrates and P lato. While in Ephesus, Justin was impressed by the devotion of Christian martyrs. One day, while Justin was strolling by the seashore, a old Christian man walked beside Justin and spoke to him about Jesus as the fulfillment of the promises made through the Jewish prophets. Justin was overwhelmed. For Justin said, Ã¢â¬Å"straightway a flame was kindled in my soul, and a love of the prophets and those man who had loved Christ; I reflected on all their wordsRead MorePerpetua and Felicity: Weighing the Cost of Choosing Between Family or Faith6228 Words Ã |Ã 25 Pagesbetween Family or Faith Church History CHHI 520 TABLE OF CONTENTS IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.3 What Did Jesus Mean in Matthew 10:37 and Luke 14:26? Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦3-9 The Martyrdom of Perpetua and FelicitiasÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 9-16 Conclusion......Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦16-19 BibliographyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦.19 : Read Moreontemporary Thinkers: Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Aguinas Essay6220 Words Ã |Ã 25 PagesContemporary Thinkers: Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Aguinas Question #1 : Please discuss the political organization of the Greek city- states, particularly Athenian democracy at the time of Pericles, Plato, and Aristotle. Also discuss the backgrounds of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle and the fate of the Greek city-states historically. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;During the time of Pericles, Plato, and Aristotle, Greece was divided into city-states with a wide variety of constitutions, ranging from SpartasRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 Pageswill, too. Ã¢ââ¬Ã¢ââ¬Ã¢ââ¬Ã¢ââ¬22 The most common implicit premises are definitions of words, principles of grammar, rules of semantics23, theorems of mathematics, and the commonly held beliefs of our civilization. We might argue that because Dwayne loves Jesus, Jesus is loved by Dwayne. This deductively valid argument depends on a grammatical principle about passive voice transformation that we rarely need to spell out. Everybody who speaks English can follow the inference, even though few of us could actually
Sunday, May 10, 2020
Individual Liberty Versus Majoritarian Democracy in Edward LarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Summer For the Gods The Scopes trial, writes Edward Larson, to most Americans embodies Ã¢â¬Å"the timeless debate over science and religion.Ã¢â¬ (265) Written by historians, judges, and playwrights, the history of the Scopes trial has caused Americans to perceive Ã¢â¬Å"the relationship between science and religion in . . . simple terms: either Darwin or the Bible was true.Ã¢â¬ (265) The road to the trial began when Tennessee passed the Butler Act in 1925 banning the teaching of evolution in secondary schools. It was only a matter of time before a young biology teacher, John T. Scopes, prompted by the ACLU tested the law. Spectators and newspapermen came from allover to witnessÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Through exploring Bryan, Larson exposes the majoritarian democratic ideology underlying the veneer of religion that has since characterized the trial Next Larson explores the role the ACLU played in the Scopes Trial. They saw the Scopes trial as a means to advance the rights of laborers and academic freedom using the First Amendment. Clarence Darrow, when he heard that William Jennings Bryan would be prosecuting the trial, eagerly joined the ACLU defense team. Darrow claimed that he was fighting for individual rights but he was also obsessed in his determination to overturn the fundamentalist adherence to creationism. Larson delves deep into the internal documents of the ACLU to reveal how difficult it was to control Darrow and keep the case centered on a test of the law, not creationism. By revealing the ACLUÃ¢â¬â¢s agenda, Larson effectively shows that the Scopes trial was a battle between the concept of majority rule and individual rights. Larson suggests that the burgeoning fight for rights arose from a gradual ideological shift to modernism. It was already under way before the Scopes trial even in rural areas. Bryan and his fundamentalist backers had trouble finding expert witnesses that could discredit evolution. Tennessee Governor Peay, even though he supported the Butler Act, founded TennesseeÃ¢â¬â¢s public schools based on modern education theory.(58) Even the fundamentalist spectators of Dayton shouted their approval to allow scientific expertShow MoreRelatedEdward Larsons Work Summer For The Gods1199 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThroughout United States history, Americans have always remain separated on certain issues. Edward LarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s work Summer for the Gods exemplifies just how issues split the population. Larson uses the Scopes Trial of 1925 to demonstrate to the rivalry between modernists and traditionalists in the early 20th century. Charles Dawson discovered fossilized human bones known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Pi ltdown skullÃ¢â¬ and bridged a gap in history that seemed to confirm DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of evolution. Darwin s account of random
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Alando Ford MGT521/Management Jim Holst October 25, 2009 Retention One of the most pressing challenges facing todayÃ¢â¬â¢s managers is keeping their best people. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s economy companies separate themselves by the talented people they recruit. Some ways companies can improve their retention rate are obvious. We will write a custom essay sample on Biggest Issues Facing Managers or any similar topic only for you Order Now One way companies can cut turnover is by qualifying the personnel they are hiring and carefully analyzing what the different roles in their organization are. Next they must make a realistic decision regarding what skills and abilities are required to fill this role. Recent research has proven that there is a direct link between training and employee retention. Employees involved in ongoing training feel that their employer is interested in them doing a good job, and the employer cares enough about them to make an investment in their development. Ã¢â¬Å"Training can also be the means for positive change in any organization; however, training is not enough to create lasting change without a vital link that will help employees transfer what they learned into real-life application. That vital link is a strong coaching program. Coaching comprise the following features which needs to be articulated in the best manner in order to get one hundred percent from the employeesÃ¢â¬ . (Mirsha, Remedies for the biggest challenges in business today, pg. 1 para. 3). Strategy and cost effective business models Ã¢â¬Å"Personally I believe that the most difficult task is finding a positive cash flow business model. It isnÃ¢â¬â¢t that difficult to source good products, and customers will appear if sufficient money is spent on advertising or other promotion. This is all pointless if the cost exceeds the revenue from all of this, i. e. he net assets of a business fall to zero, and the business ceases to operateÃ¢â¬ . (Mark McIlroy-Director, Blue Sky Technology) With the economy in a crisis and unemployment at staggering rates, businesses of all types are feeling the crunch. Companies must continue to focus on customer service. This practice will help retain their existing client base, while allowing them to make a posi tive impression on new customers. In the flow of business, people are the most important element no matter the product or service. Creating partnerships reduce costs and increase referral rates when companies align themselves. Even the most pessimistic of economists today are saying that the actual numbers in the current recessions are a reduction in gross domestic product (GDP) by two percent annually and just through 2009, and yet most businesses talk and act if business is off thirty percent. (Johnese, 2009, TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Business Professional) So, the number one challenge is to realize that it might be harder to do business right now, but thereÃ¢â¬â¢s more business to be done, market share to be gained, while the other guy sits around or slows down waiting for things to improve. Ã¢â¬ (Stephen Kann- CEO at Policy Settlement Associates, Inc. Conclusion By understanding the factors that drive business in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s economy companies will be better prepared to be successful in this market. They will have to rely more on the skills and tools they have available. They will have to become more aggressive when it comes to recruiting and retaining good employees. Companies need to continue to revamp o lder processes that no longer work, by adding newer more innovative systems. Companies should understand that the challenge that lies ahead is transitioning from a service provider to a business manager. This transition will be necessary; if the primary goal of the business is to make money. Companies will be able to increase their profits while minimizing their losses. Admin (2009, February 16). TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Small Business Challenges. Retrieved from http://www. babeofbusiness. com Johnese, Daniel (2007). TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Business Professional. Retrieved from http://www. jobbankusa. com Mishra, Sonika(2008,October 13). Employee Retention- Remedies for the Biggest Challenge in Business Today. Retrieved from http://www. articlesbase. com How to cite Biggest Issues Facing Managers, Papers
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
Why Did Nationalism Prove Such an Unstoppable Force Under Gorbachev Essay Under Gorbachev nationalism proved an unstoppable force that precipitated the collapse of the Soviet Union. Nationalism had always existed across the Union but it was allowed to surface and become a problem under Gorbachev predominantly because of his tactical mistakes and because of his reform programme. Nationalism became an unstoppable force because of the deprivation in many Soviet republics. The economic reforms of perestroika were designed to rejuvenate the weak Soviet economy and put it on par with western economies. However, McCauley wrote that economically, perestroika was an abject failure resulting in economic decline, shortages, large budget deficits and rising inflation (1998, 265). By 1990 the economy was in such a poor state that many people in the republics argued that greater autonomy or independence was necessary to protect their economies from collapsing (Walker, 1993, 182). Economic reforms continually failed to give the republics either ownership or managerial control over natural resources or fixed assets on their territory. Yeltsin, who was a popular nationalist campaigner, often complained that even Russia owned just fifteen percent of its resources in 1990 because they were largely controlled by the Soviet Union (Walker, 1993, 178). We will write a custom essay sample on Why Did Nationalism Prove Such an Unstoppable Force Under Gorbachev specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Why Did Nationalism Prove Such an Unstoppable Force Under Gorbachev specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Why Did Nationalism Prove Such an Unstoppable Force Under Gorbachev specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer As perestroika developed, there was a growing belief that the only way to reform the economy was to move away from the centrally planned economy and rely more on market mechanisms. These reforms seriously damaged the Soviet Union because it was taken for granted that state property was the bedrock of a socialist system (McCauley, 1992, 91). The CPSU was legitimised by the fact it was leading the Soviet Union forward to socialism but the economic reforms were clearly not socialist. The existence of the Soviet Union relied on the legitimacy of the CPSU, which was now rendered illegitimate by economic reforms. McCauley wrote, the CPSU was the institution which provided the glue which kept the whole system together. No alternative institution was set up to replace it. One of Gorbachevs failures was that whereas he destroyed the old system, he did not put a new one in its place (1998, 269). Without legitimacy it was almost impossible for the CPSU to hold the Soviet Union together, when there were strong nationalist movements in the republics, who derived legitimacy from popular support. Gorbachev attempted to give the CPSU a new basis of legitimacy in the form of electoral accountability. However the elections were a success for nationalist movements and only consolidated their position and authority shifted further from the centre to the republics. The newly elected republican legislatures claimed greater legitimacy because they were more representative and so refused to be subordinate to federal power (Walker, 1993, 179). The elections boosted the confidence of the nationalist movement and many became increasingly radical. For example, a war of laws began. Republican legislatures changed many federal policies and laws and refused to implement federal orders unless they would benefit the republic (Walker, 1993, 181). Glasnost was a key part of Gorbachevs reforms. In Russian, glasnost literally means openness and Gorbachev believed that a relaxation of censorship and oppression was needed so vital new ideas could come forward to benefit the Soviet Union. However, glasnost contributed greatly to the collapse of the Soviet Union because it unleashed nationalist forces. Firstly, this is because, people were finally shown the ills of the Soviet Union. Walker wrote the mediawhich had always painted a rosy picture of society, began to fill up with horror stories (1993, 137). Terrible stories about the actions of Lenin and Stalin were released and investigative journalists such as young televisions producer Nerzorov, revealed the dire situation the Soviet Union was currently in (McCauley, 1992, 101). Secondly, glasnost removed cultural oppression and allowed nationalist feelings that had always existed to emerge. Across the Soviet Union there was enormous cultural diversity and only a weak common identity. People were finally allowed to say that they wanted their state to be based on a cultural community and that people of the same community should rule it, which fundamentally undermined the idea of the Soviet Union ruled by the CPSU from Moscow (Sakwa, 1998, 279). People were able to organise themselves into nationalist movements and put strong collective pressure on the Soviet Union (Daniels, 1993, 125). Thirdly, the Congress of 1989 dealt a huge blow to the Soviet Union because it gave nationalist tensions an incredibly public platform. This would not have been possible before glasnost. McCauley wrote the old practice of an official line, carefully agreed speeches, and unanimous approval were gone forever (1992, 101). The arguments highlighted how fragmentation of the Soviet Union and the problems with it. The Congress was extremely significant because the Soviet public paid so much attention. Kiernan wrote the nation sat virtually hypnotised in front of its televisions as an unprecedented political spectacle was played out daily (1993, 218). Nationalism and resentment of the Soviet Union was compounded by a series of outbreaks of violence, which ended in Soviet troops killing people in the republics. Gorbachev was indirectly responsible for the killing in Baku, Tbilisi, and Vilinius. He advocated the violence but was shocked at the loss of life (McCauley, 1998, 274). These incidents could not just be swept under the carpet with glasnost. It was clear that Gorbachev had lost control in an unprecedented way for a General Secretary of the CPSU. This strengthened nationalist feeling because people started to seek a new coherent leadership and people were no longer as afraid of defying Gorbachev. This is exemplified by the Gorbachevs swing to the right in the summer of 1990 to consolidate his position (Walker, 1993, 183). Gorbachev made numerous enemies because of his reforms, or by replacing people in power, such as members of the Politburo and the Secretariat. He was continuously attacked and criticised to the point that a coup was staged in 1991 (McCauley, 1998, 92). Many of the people Gorbachev alienated also expressed their dislike by supporting nationalist movements (for example, Yeltsin). They knew that if they destabilised the Soviet Union they would weaken Gorbachevs position. There were external factors that gave rise to nationalism in the Gorbachev era. Firstly, many western states, including most importantly the USA, helped nationalist movements gain greater influence by giving them resources. For example, nationalist movements in the Baltic covertly received printing presses from the USA to enable them to mass produce their nationalist newspapers and pamphlets. Secondly, the new freedoms allowed under glasnost allowed the Soviet public to see that life was far better in the mixed economies of the West. Nationalism became more popular as people in the Soviet republics lost faith in the Union and felt that they could have a better standard of living if they were self-determined (Sakwa, 1998, 288). Finally, it is even alleged that Reagan started a new arms race with a renewed military build-up in the 1980s because he knew that the Soviet economy was weak and could collapse under the strain. This would have added to the deprivation in the republics and sti mulated nationalism (Heywood, 1997, 148). One of Gorbachevs biggest failures as Soviet leader was to almost ignore the national question. He embarked on a massive programme of economic and political reform but failed to address the significant impact this would have on the federal structure of the Soviet Union. Gorbachev failed to appease nationalist with concession and so radicalised them. Initially most nationalists called for greater freedoms, however, when Gorbachev failed to listen to their calls they moved towards wanting secession (Walker, 1993, 174-5). Nationalist movement across the republics of the Soviet Union were very different. They varied greatly in the tactics they employed and the pace at which they moved. This is demonstrated by the numerous differences between nationalists in the Baltic and Central Asia. Nationalist movements in the Baltic tended to be more radical than in Central Asia. It was Baltic nationalists that first challenged the authority of the Soviet Union with declarations of sovereignty. They were the first to discuss secession and the first to secede (Daniels, 1993, 126). Baltic nationalists were also far more protective of their ethnic identity and against, what they saw as, Russian imperialism. Daniels wrote in the extreme case, to protect their ethnic identity, the Baltic republics have tried to deny equal rights of citizenship to Russians and others who may actually have been born there and lived there all their lives (1993, 135). The radicalism in the Baltic republics is understandable in the light of the fact they were only incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1940 as a result of the Nazi-Soviet Pact (Walker, 1993, 117). In the 1980s, people in the Baltic could still remember the Soviets colluding with the Nazis and treating their nation like a commodity. This is very different to Central Asia, where many of the Soviet states had been part of a Russian-centred empire for at least one-hundred years (Daniels, 1993, 135). Central Asian republics also benefited economically from being in the Soviet Union. They tended to have weak economies and received a net inwards flow of resources as a result of being part of the Union (Walker, 1993, 180). The opposite is the case in the Baltic republics because they were some of the richest and most developed in the Soviet Union. Their bitterness at being part of the Soviet Union was compounded by the net outflow of resources (Muiznieks, 1995, 21). Nationalist movements in Central Asia did not have the ambition or the scope of those in the Baltic republics. They tended to be more concerned with local projects that directly influenced them, whereas the Baltic republics became the battleground over the fate of the Soviet Union. Muiznieks wrote nationalist movements in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania not only destroyed the structures of Soviet power in their own republics, but exported their revolutions to other areas of the Union as well (1995, 3). This is because nationalist movements in the Baltic believed that their interests would be best served by helping unleash nationalism across the Soviet Union. They also were driven by ideology to a greater extent than nationalist movements in Central Asia. The movements in the Baltic were committed to the belief that peoples should have the right to self-determination. They attempted to find allies in other Soviet republics and if they could not find some they would proactively try to cr eate some. They did this by stirring up nationalist agitation with the numerous publications and radio stations they established. Once nationalist feeling had grown, prominent activists were often sent out to help nationalist movements grow by offering practical assistance (Muiznieks, 1995, 7-8). Even if nationalist movements across the Soviet Union did not directly collude with those in the Baltic republics, there are numerous instances (for example Belorussia, Moldavia and the Ukraine) of movements importing the methods and goals of Baltic movements (Muiznieks, 1995, 11). The Baltic movements were also very influential because the Baltic was the most westernised part of the Soviet Union and managed to maintain some links with the West, and therefore contact with or emulation of the Balts might have been perceived as enhancing ones own western orientation (Muiznieks, 1995, 20). Nationalist movements in Central Asia were not as influential as those in the Baltic because they concentrated more on local disputes. They did not provide a model that was compatible with many of the republics of the Soviet Union because they were predominantly Islamic. Some animosity existed with the Christian majority across the Soviet Union. The model provided by movements in Central Asia was also much less appealing because of the violence and involvement of the Soviet military. In comparison the Baltic model was much less dangerous (Muiznieks, 1995, 20-1). In conclusion, Gorbachevs reforms, primarily perestroika and glasnost, proved to be an absolute disaster for the Soviet Union because they compounded nationalist feeling and allowed it to be expressed openly. Gorbachev crucially failed to address the national question although he had unleashed. By the time he had realised there was a serious problem, he no longer had the power to rectify the situation. Therefore, it is fair to blame Gorbachev for letting nationalism become an unstoppable force.